Australian cattle dog FAQ
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Australian cattle dog FAQ

Introduction:

This document contains some suggestions on how to handle common ACD problems, answers to some common questions, and some other useful tidbits. It is by no means the be all end all on raising an ACD or handling a behavior problem. We only hope that this will answer some of your questions or help you with raising your puppy.

In Internet lingo this is a "faq", that is a "Frequently Asked Questions" document. That being said, we hope that this document helps answer some of your questions and makes life with your ACD just that much more rewarding.

ACDs are a lot of dog in a small body and it takes a lot of owner to raise and handle one. If you're new to ACDs then get ready for a wild ride. Like a rollercoaster it has its scary and difficult moments but the end result is exhilarating. All of the effort that you put into your ACD, and quite a bit will be required, will be repaid tenfold. Everything that makes them a handful to own and raise also makes them one of the greatest joys in their owners' lives.

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What is the real name of these dogs anyway?

Australian Cattle Dog, Queensland Heeler, Red Heeler, Blue Heeler, Dingo, Australian Heeler, these are all names by which these dogs have been called. When the first standard was drawn up and the first official registry established the breed had to be given a name and "Australian Cattle Dog" was chosen. The dogs working Australian cattle came with a variety of names, some local variations, some more widespread. The name "Australian Cattle Dog" acknowledges the widespread usage of the dogs and their Australian origins without putting one local variant of the name ahead of the others. Nevertheless many of the other names have survived as "nicknames" for the breed and in some places are the more commonly used name. New nicknames, such as "Dingo" which is popular in parts of the American west, occasionally pop up to further confuse the issue.

Despite the plethora of names, they are all still the same breed and the official name is "Australian Cattle Dog". Many people, unfamiliar with the history of the breed and its names, believe that the different names designate different breeds, in other words that "Blue Heelers" are actually distinct from "Australian Cattle Dogs", an understandable misconception.

There are a lot of dogs out there working on farms and ranches and not registered with any of the dog-registering organizations. Many of these dogs are purebred Australian Cattle Dogs or mixes of Australian Cattle Dogs and other herding dogs. Frequently the unregistered dogs are more likely to go by a locally used nickname than by the official breed name and frequently the ranchers and farmers with these dogs don't much care what the official name is. Their interest is in the dog's working ability and they call it whatever they please. They may not know or care that the "official" name for their Blue Heeler is "Australian Cattle Dog" and as the dog is never going to be registered anywhere it doesn't really matter. Personally I think they can call their dogs whatever they want and who are we to tell them that the name they're using is wrong. As long as people are not spreading misinformation, perhaps something along the lines of insisting that Blue Heelers and Australian Cattle Dogs are completely distinct breeds, I do not feel that the name used is all that important.

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ACD Personality

While no two dogs are exactly the same there are some commonalties you can expect between two dogs of the same breed. Knowing these can help you choose the right breed for you, and also help you be a better owner for the dog you have.

ACDs are high energy, intently focused dogs. Most will want to be active and busy most, if not all, of the time. When young they have two modes, 90 miles per hour and comatose. This energy has to be directed somewhere or you will quickly end up with problems. A bored ACD will find ways to entertain himself, usually doing something you won't like, such as redecorating your house, rearranging your yard, etc.

That they are intently focused means that whatever they are doing they take very seriously. Everything they do is immensely important, from their point of view, and they always do it to the best of their ability. If they're doing good things then this is wonderful but if they're doing something bad, count on it being horrid.

ACDs have been bred to herd and to do so with force, ie biting. Without their own cattle most will find other things to herd, your cats, toys, your kids, neighbors, the lawn mower, vacuum cleaner, etc. This can range from cute to annoying to outright dangerous. Biting at the ankle or hind leg is instinctive and this will come out whenever they chase or herd something else. While this is sometimes cute it also means they have a strong tendency to bite PEOPLE, even just in play. This has to be strongly curtailed from day one or you will end up with a problem dog. You need to find acceptable outlets for this herding behavior to keep your dog out of serious trouble. Encouraging your dog to herd certain toys (see Boomer Ball) will help. Teaching him to play fetch so that he can chase a toy repeatedly, which uses the same instincts, is also a good solution.

Part of this desire to herd comes from a strong prey drive, that is the drive to catch and kill small game. Expect your ACD to be fascinated by squirrels, cats, and other small animals. Most are fine with other species IF THEY ARE RAISED WITH THEM, but most can also easily be cat-killers otherwise. Teaching your dog to obey you and NOT chase that tempting squirrel can save your dog's life when he decides to dart across a busy road in pursuit of what he sees as a possible lunch.

The instinct to bite also means that these dogs are very oral, that is they use their mouths constantly. They "taste test" nearly everything and they love to chew. Many will try to gently chew on people as a sign of affection. Most will chew anything in sight if this is not directed toward acceptable chew toys. Directing your ACD puppy's "mouthiness" is an important part of his socialization and training.

While many ACDs are friendly with everyone they meet, most are also protective of their house and family. Some are suspicious of everyone new, especially on their home turf. This has to be controlled as well or you may end up with a dog who does not welcome guests into your home, or who bites solicitors at your door (which while a somewhat appealing thought on occasion, does have some serious legal ramifications.) The best solution is careful socialization while a puppy. Introduce your puppy to as many new things and people as possible while he is still very young. Teach him that new people are a positive thing. Teach him that YOU decide who is safe and who is not. This will stop the problem before it starts. This does not mean that your puppy will no longer be protective, just that he will be more accepting of new people and not automatically suspicious. He will look to you for guidance as to whom to trust and when to be protective.

ACDs have a high pain tolerance and unswerving faith in their own indestructibility. Couple this with their intense focus and high energy and you have a dog who is likely to injure himself not infrequently. Many problems can be prevented with solid obedience training so you can call him away from or stop him from doing something dangerous. But sometimes, no matter how hard you try, he will just bang himself up. Don't panic, ACDs are almost as tough as they think they are and they heal frighteningly well. It is just good to be prepared for this when it happens, otherwise it can be pretty nerve-wracking.

The same instincts that make ACDs superb herders also leave them highly at risk around automobiles. Every instinct tells them to chase large moving things, and cars certainly fit the bill. And the attitude which allows them to face down a charging bull will lead them to try and face down a moving vehicle, with disastrous results. It is critical for his own safety that your dog be taught how to behave around automobiles and that you take into account his instinctive herding behavior.

The most important thing to know about an ACD is that you will be the center of his universe. ACDs bond so closely with their humans that it can be scary. Some pick one person in the household who is their special person and virtually attach themselves at the hip while some bond closely to everyone in the household. Either way the attachment is intense. On ACD-L people describe their dogs as "Velcro dogs", because they attach to you so firmly, and "Furry tumors with adoring eyes." Expect your ACD to follow you everywhere you go and expect him to want to be a part of everything you do. Proximity, physical contact, interaction such as obedience work, herding, and just plain play, are the lifeblood of ACD existence. Keeping your ACD away from you is just about the harshest punishment you can inflict. This is definitely not a dog who can live in the back yard and get occasional attention. They need to have your presence on a regular basis.

You can use this bond to further your training with your dog very easily. ACDs are forward and like to see what they can get away with but ultimately the live and breathe to make their people happy. One book describes them as "Obedient yet bold" which is a superb characterization. Expect your ACD to constantly test the rules, probe for the limits, and to test your sense of humor about what is and what is not acceptable. But also expect your ACD to truly care if you are happy, to truly want to please you, to truly be interested in your welfare at all times.

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Hereditary health problems

The only common and hereditary eye problem in ACDs is PRA, progressive retinal atrophy. Most of the other eye diseases you can detect in a slit lamp exam at a young age (under a year.) but PRA sometimes cannot be detected until 5-6 years, and this disease can easily cause blindness in older dogs. If one of the parents is affected with PRA, than all puppies out of that dog will be carriers or will be affected. CERF, the Canine Eye Research Foundation, registers and tracks incidences of PRA. Before buying a puppy you should insist on seeing the CERF registration for BOTH of the parents.

Canine Hip Dysplasia (often abbreviated as CHD) is a malformation of the hip socket. It is hereditary and varies widely in severity. There are cases of ACDs being so crippled with hip dysplasia at under a year that the owners were told by the vet that the dog must either have 2 total hip replacements (cost $4,000) or have the dog euthanized. Other dogs will be minorly affected and the problem might not be noticeable until old age.

The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, OFA, maintains a registry of dogs tested for CHD. Owners send in x-rays of the dog's hips and OFA rates them, Poor, Fair, Good, or Excellent. The owner is given a certificate which gives the registration number and the results of OFA's screening. OFA will give a young dog a temporary registration and rating but a permanent registration and rating must wait until the dog is at least 2 years old.

Even those not interested in breeding need to insist on seeing the OFA & CERF clearances for at least the sire and dam of the puppy. Many breeders when asked about hip and eye problems say "Oh no, we don't have that problem in my line," but the truth of the matter is that if you don't check then you don't know. If dogs are clear of these problems the breeder should be willing (and proud) to give you the proof of these tests. You can also call OFA to see if a dog has a OFA# though this only tells you that the dog has been checked, not how the dog was rated.

Some of us learn the hard way that even though dogs are advertised OFA good, sometimes it's a lie. Don't be shy. You have every right to ask for this information. Even with this information there are no guarantees, but you can greatly reduce the chances that you will buy a puppy with these problems. And by not buying puppies from unscrupulous or careless breeders who do not check for hereditary health problems you are encouraging them to improve their practices and hence doing a service for the breed as a whole.

Another genetic problem is inherited deafness. This is a problem in our breed but it is something that can be tested for by the breeder while the puppies are still in the whelping box. It is not something that they will acquire later. If a puppy is deaf in one ear at 6 weeks, it will forever be deaf in one ear but will not become deaf in the other.

To date there has been no specific research done on Australian cattle dogs and to do research costs a lot of money. Breed specific research is almost always funded by the parent club of that breed, at least partially and so far the Australian Cattle Dog Club of America has not had the funds for it. However research has been done on many other large populations of dogs and cats with congenital deafness and in all the published cases for all the different breeds, English Setters, Dalmatians, White Bull Terriers, cats, Boxers et al, the research indicated that the gene for deafness was color linked. The genes for deafness, when present, are probably linked to the genes that cause them to be born white, or to have a Bentley mark, or for the white hairs through the coat that cause the roaning pattern. This means that it probably will not be removed from the breed until gene splicing is a possibility.

BAER testing is useful for finding dogs with hearing problems but it is only a tool not a cure, and no other breed has gotten rid of deafness by only breeding BAER tested full hearing dogs. At least one cattle dog person who is a fanatic on deafness and thought she could rid the breed of the problem has given up. After 7 generations of BAER testing she still gets the occasional deaf puppy. (Monica Shifflet)

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PRA and "Glowing" Eyes

A quick note on canine eye structure and vision since many ACD owners worry about PRA. A common rumour states that if your dog's eyes glow green in bright light then he has PRA. This is half right but since a healthy dog's eyes can glow green in some circumstances further explanation is in order.

The iris is the colored part of the eye. It opens to let light into the eye through the pupil (the dark hole in the middle). The pupil, by opening and closing, controls how much light is allowed into the eye. Light enters the eye through the pupil and then travels through the lens which focuses it on the retina, a very delicate sheet of tissue lining the back of the eye. The retina contains cells that receive light and send an image of what's seen to the brain. In PRA, the retina slowly degenerates and vision is lost.

The eyes of dogs and cats have an extra layer of reflective cells (called the tapetum), located behind the retina. This layer reflects light back into the retina, giving more sensitivity in dim conditions. In effect, dogs (and cats) get two chances to see something, once when the light comes in and once when it reflects back out.

The "glow" that you sometimes see in your dog's eyes, especially in pictures taken with a flash, is light reflecting off the tapetum. In reality this "glow" happens all the time as light is always reflecting off the tapetum but in order to see it a couple of things have to happen. Most importantly, the pupil has to let in enough light that the reflection off the tapetum will be bright relative to the surrounding light. As an example, if you shine a flashlight in a dark room, it looks very bright, but if you shine the same flashlight outside in sunlight, it looks dim or its light isn't noticeable at all. Since the amount of light the pupil lets in is based on how bright the surrounding conditions are, the circumstances necessary to see the glow do not happen very often.

With a sudden bright light, such as with a camera flash, the pupil is caught off guard and before it can respond, a large amount of light is let in. This bright light is reflected by the tapetum and you can see the eyes glowing. Similarly, if you shine a flashlight at your dog in the dark, the amount of light reflecting off the tapetum is bright relative to the surrounding darkness and you can see the glow. (The green glow from a camera flash is similar to "red eye" that you sometimes get from people's eyes in a flash picture. People have no tapetum so the red glow is due to the light reflecting off the blood vessels in the eye.)

In a blind dog things work out such that the glow is easier to see under normal circumstances. Because the dog is blind, the brain assumes that things are just too dark to see and tells the pupil to open as wide as possible, to let in as much light as possible. This means the pupil is open wide all the time, regardless of how bright the surrounding light is. Because of this, the maximum amount of light available is reflecting off the tapetum making it more likely that it will be bright enough to see. Also, because the pupil is open so wide it is easier to see into the dog's eyes which makes it easier to see the glow. This is not specific to PRA. Any dog that is blind will show this picture because the retina is just not registering the light.

If you want to do a quick amateur check of your dog's vision, take the dog and a flashlight into a dark room and then shine the flashlight into the eye. You should see the pupil shut down fairly quickly to a smaller hole if the eye is detecting light. If the wide-open pupil stays that way, the eye isn't seeing. Do make this a fairly quick check- you wouldn't want someone blasting your eyeball with a flashlight for long periods of time either.

To complicate matters, the lens (seen through the pupil) often looks cloudy in older animals - this is usually senile cataracts, not PRA. This clouding cuts down the amount of light getting into the eye which can slow down pupil response as well. In the right circumstances the clouding can look enough like the "glow" to fool the casual observer. If the lens is very cloudy, a veterinary ophthalmologist will not be able to see through it to examine the retina during a CERF exam.

If you have any doubts about your dog's vision, make an appointment with your vet. Not all visual problems are due to PRA and not all are necessarily permanent if treated in time.(Rosemary Hoffman, Mark Abbott, and Leslie Welch)

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ACD puppy owner's mantra

"A tired puppy is a good puppy. A tired puppy is a good puppy. A tired puppy is a good puppy."

Not enough exercise, mental as well as physical, is a common cause of behavior problems in this breed. As one breeder puts it, "An intelligent dog like a cattledog puppy is always on a quest for knowledge. Use that to your advantage, teach them good things, because if you don't, left to their own devices they will learn bad things. And trust me, Hell hath no fury like a bored cattledog puppy. (Monica Shifflet)

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Building a Healthy Relationship with your ACD

Humans and dogs get along well with each other because we both are social animals. We both want many of the same things and make strong social bonds, however it is critical to remember that your puppy is not a person. He does have some crucial differences in what he needs from you and how he communicates with you. By taking these differences into account you can use your knowledge to build a healthy and happy relationship with your puppy.

Many people do not realize it but dogs treat people as if we were other dogs. They use the same methods of communication and expect the same sorts of relationships as if we were just funny two-legged dogs. This means that in your dog's eyes your household is his "pack", much like a wolf pack.

acks have structure. Each dog knows his place in the pack, whether he is top dog, somewhere in the middle, or bottom dog. Most dogs are quite happy to hold any position in the pack as long as it is clear cut. Ambiguity in the pack hierarchy is stressful for the dog and he will attempt to remove the stress by clearing up this ambiguity, usually by testing to see if he can dominate other members of the pack/household. This is definitely NOT viciousness, even if it involves some aggression, it is just an attempt to get things settled.

Contrary to popular opinion it is not necessary to beat your dog, terrorize him, or in any way abuse him to make sure that you are alpha in the household. (By the way, top dog is called the "alpha dog" in animal behaviorist lingo and I'll be using it as well.) There are non-forceful methods to cement your position with your dog which work very well.

People often ask if it is truly necessary to be alpha with their dogs, can't they just be friends? Here is how one ACD expert answers that question.

"Damned straight, we must. While I adore my 1300 lb horse, there's no way I'm letting him be in charge of our relationship. Because he and I BOTH know that I'm in charge, he can relax and quit worrying about mountain lions and the equally dreaded blowing plastic bags. If it's scary, I'll let him know. "Alphaness" is much more than terrorizing your dog (or horse) into submission. It's leadership, authority, fairness, consistency. Alpha is interesting, always has fun games to play, good stuff to eat (or sniff) and is altogether a much cooler critter to be around than just anybody. Alpha takes care of the pack, and can be trusted to do the right thing. Alpha will decide whether the mailman lives or dies (personally, I let him live!), and can be depended upon to retrieve toys that get smooshed under the bed. Those "rule books" we laugh about are a dog's lifeline. They NEED that kind of structure, to have clear, black & white explanations.......A good alpha is*attitude* and posture, and only very little action. They establish their leadership just by being leaders." (Mary Healey) Being alpha AND friend is the best bet, and easily accomplished.

So, how can you go about having your puppy see you as the leader?

1. Food is a wonderful tool to use to establish your position in the pack hierarchy. The alpha gets first choice in all food and decides if others get to eat or not. You can use this to your advantage is several ways. For one, eat your own dinner just before you feed the puppy. This teaches your puppy that he ranks below all the humans because they eat first. Two, as soon as your puppy knows some basic obedience commands, use them! Have your puppy sit before you give him his food. By making your puppy be obedient for food you are sending strong signals that you are alpha.

hree, hand feed your puppy often. If you sit on the floor and dole out his kibble by hand this is another very strong indicator that you rank him. Similarly, handing out tidbits from your own food is a powerful tool to use. This shows your dog that you have special food and that occasionally, if he's very good, you will share.

Four, while your puppy is eating give him a basic obedience command, such as "Sit". If he obeys then praise, treat, and let him go back to eating. If he ignores you then pick up his food and put it away for 5 minutes or so. Only obedient dogs get food is the message. Note, this is only fair to use when you are absolutely certain that your puppy knows the command "Sit" otherwise he'll just be confused.

Five, teach your puppy that you can reach into his food bowl while he's eating. Start by being nearby while he eats and move up to offering treats. When he's comfortable with this start putting the treats directly in the bowl while he eats and eventually graduate to reaching in, handling the food, and not leaving a treat. This accomplishes two things: your puppy learns that you control the food, even when he's already eating it, and that you are also the source of special treats. You are showing your puppy that your alpha-ness is a benevolent thing. You are demanding but also fair and hand out treats. This is a very important exercise for children as many are bitten when they get too near the puppy's food bowl. With this training the puppy can learn that children are allowed to not only be near his food, they can reach directly into his bowl.

2. Leash your puppy to your belt while you are at home. This accomplishes several things. For one, you always know where the puppy is and supervision becomes much easier. Keeping your puppy out of trouble will make both of your lives easier. But this also teaches your puppy that you are the center of his world and that being with you is the preferred place. Everywhere you go the puppy goes with you. It will also encourage you to talk to your puppy, as discussed elsewhere in this document, if for no other reason as you jolly him along while you walk around the house.

3. Alpha leads and so should you. If your puppy forges ahead of you then he is attempting to lead. The easiest solution, assuming the puppy is on leash, is to simply turn and walk the other way. This teaches the puppy that you, not he, set the direction you'll both be going, and he needs to watch you to see which way you go.

Similarly always be first through doorways. Make your puppy wait while you go through any doorway. This is a big one for many dogs; many see order through doorways as a clear sign of rank in the pack. If I call my dogs to come into the house or get into the car they always go in the pack order. If the more submissive dog gets to the door or car first then he/she waits for the dominant dog before proceeding.

To teach this simply tell your puppy to "Wait" at the doorway and use the leash to enforce this (gently, no jerking just prevent the puppy from forging ahead. You can teach the "wait" by using the leash to prevent the puppy from going ahead while saying "Wait" and putting an open hand in front of the puppy. The open hand will often stop the puppy in his tracks, at least momentarily, so you may not even need to use the leash.)

4. Work on establishing regular eye contact with your puppy. Dogs use eye contact as a key part of their communication and you can use this to your advantage. Whenever you notice your puppy looking at you stop and praise him. Give him a pet or a treat as a reward for looking at you. Quickly you will find that he focuses on you regularly, making it easy for you to get his attention. This teaches your puppy that you are the center of his world and that paying attention to you is always a good thing.

You can also use eye contact, once it is a regular thing, to further your own communication with your puppy. When you are scolding your puppy look straight into his eyes and be angry. Your puppy will see that in your eyes with no difficulty. Similarly, looking into your puppy's eyes with love will communicate your love, strengthening the connection between you.

5. Talk to your puppy. Many people feel silly talking to dogs but it really helps your relationship. Dogs do not start off knowing that they should listen to people but by talking to your puppy regularly he will learn to listen to your voice. Sprinkle the occasional pet or treat in with your talking to add extra incentive for the puppy to listen. What you say to your puppy can be as simple as "We're going downstairs now" or "I'm going to fold the laundry now". It doesn't have to be anything special at all, what is important is that you are keeping a line of communication going. This teaches your dog to pay attention to your voice which is very helpful when you want your puppy to obey a command. You'll also find that your puppy will learn many phrases which you use regularly. Dog can develop quite large vocabularies and this will speed the process along.

6. Once your puppy knows some basic commands, use them constantly. Ask for a sit before you pet or play with him. Have him do a down before you give him a toy. Make him drop toys on command on a regular basis. This sort of thing goes a long way toward convincing your puppy who's in charge. And the better your puppy becomes at listening to you the more confident you'll become of your role as alpha.

7. "Get outta the way!" When your puppy is in your way make him move. Rather than going around him, a submissive behavior, make him get out of your way, a dominant behavior. You can do this with just a gentle push with your leg, coupled with a word for a command.

8. Teach your puppy to drop things on command and then use this command regularly. You can teach a "Drop it" (many trainers say "Leave it", either is okay) command very easily. When the puppy has a toy in his mouth offer him a tasty treat in exchange. Most will immediately drop the toy to get the treat. If you give the command as you hold out the treat your puppy will quickly learn what "Drop it" means. Expand this command to having your puppy drop food . This is an even stronger expression of dominance as food is very important (see #1 above) and can also save your puppy's life if he picks up something dangerous or poisonous.

Use this command regularly to have your puppy drop toys or give up pieces of food. If he drops the toy/food he gets treats, praise, and the toy/food is returned. If he refuses then take it away and put it up where he can't get it.

9. Practice basic submission exercises. Two which are very useful are the "Settle command" and tummy rubs. Tummy rubs are pleasant for most dogs and so be sure to make them a part of your normal handling. You can also stand behind your dog, lift up his front paws so his is standing on his hind legs, and with your other hand rub his tummy. This is a very submissive position for your puppy but the tummy rub makes it pleasant as well.

For the "Settle" exercise, place your pup gently on his side with his head on the floor. Using the words "Easy" or "Settle" in a firm tone, require the pup to lie still for a few seconds and release him with your release word ("Ok" is common, I've also heard "Finished!", "All done", personally I use "At ease!") Do not release him when he is struggling. Wait until you gain control and then release.

Most puppies will put up at least some resistance when you introduce this exercise. Use your voice and hands effectively. Praise your dog quietly and stroke him slowly when he is cooperating. At the first sign of resistance, correct him in a firm tone of voice and/or physically place him again into a full prone position with his head on the floor. Follow with immediate quiet praise and slow stroking. This is particularly important with a pup that is very excitable or mouthy. Over-handling or rapid hand movements will be counter-productive. Quiet hands will lead to a quiet dog!

Gradually increase the duration of the exercise until your pup will lie still for several minutes without resistance. Three or four brief sessions per day, especially during the early stages, will produce the best results. Initially, you will want to conduct your sessions in a low distraction environment.

10. From an early age handle your puppy all over. It is the alpha's privilege to touch his underlings however he wishes. If the puppy complains then give him a light scolding and continue, or even just ignore the puppy's complaints and continue. If your puppy reacts positively to your handling, or even just ignores it, be lavish with the praise and hand out treats. You can teach this by doing no more than a second or two of handling followed by praise and treats. If the handling is short enough your puppy will not have a chance to complain before the praise and treats start, teaching him that handling is fun. You'll find that your puppy will quickly be happy to stay still for longer and longer handling sessions.

You can also use petting your puppy to work this. While petting your puppy in a way you already know he enjoys, use your other hand to handle the puppy in someplace more sensitive such as the paws or around the genitalia. Your puppy will soon be happy to allow you to touch him anywhere and your veterinarian will thank you many times over.

11. Once your puppy is used to being handled try giving him a massage. With the puppy lying down gently manipulate the muscle along his back, chest, neck, and legs. This is a very dominant exercise for you, and hence very submissive for the puppy, but it's also very pleasurable for both. It will help to build a strong bond between you while simultaneously cementing your position as alpha.

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Housetraining

In housetraining, the only real solution is extreme vigilance. You just have to make sure that you're ALWAYS watching him so that you can whisk him outside when he does go. And you need to take him out constantly, maybe every 30 minutes, for awhile until he gets the idea.

So,

1. Always take him to the same spot outside so that the smell will encourage him to go.

2. Take him out at regular, short intervals and give him the chance.

3. Take him out on leash. Stand around and wait for him to go, don't make the trip out fun while you're waiting for him to do his thing.

4. If he does go while you're outside immediately hand him a treat, play with him a bit outside, basically make sure that he has lots of positive associations with going in the right place. If he doesn't go after a minute or two, go back inside and try again later.

5. If he starts to go inside pick him up and whisk him outside immediately. Most dogs will stop when picked up and now you have him needing to go and outside. Note, this isn't punishing him for going in the wrong place, just startling him into stopping and then giving him the opportunity to do the right thing.

6. When you can't watch him confine him in a small place, preferably right nearby. This will discourage him from urinating or defecating because dogs like to keep their immediate areas clean. If the place you confine him is near wherever you are he won't mind it very much. You can put his crate in the room with you or you can put him on a short leash, shorter than two feet long, attached to something heavy nearby.

7. Even when he's confined take him out on a regular basis to give him a chance to be good.

8. Make sure you use a good enzymatic cleaner to get rid of any odors from where he has had accidents in the house. Even if you can't smell it he probably still can if you've used normal cleaners or vinegar.

9. The most important part of all this is to take responsibility for any time he goes in the house. If he urinates or defecates somewhere inappropriate it's YOUR fault, not his. He's just a puppy after all and you're an adult human. If you keep this attitude it helps keep you from getting mad at him, which just doesn't help, and helps you to adjust what you're doing to match what he needs to learn. If he goes when you're not looking then you're not vigilant enough. If he goes when confined then you haven't taken him out recently enough, etc.

Using this attitude and methods I've never had any trouble at all. With dogs I've gotten at 8 weeks old it's never taken more than 7 days to have them going to the door to ask to be let out. With our rescue pup, who had been living in a crate for a month and had never been housetrained before it took nearly 3 weeks but that's still not all that long.

Even when they start being good about it you still have to assume that they're puppies and take them out fairly regularly. At 9 weeks Clovis was asking to go out but he could only hold it for about 30 seconds. He'd freeze in the middle of playing, run to the door, and stand there quivering. If I ran and took him out immediately I'd get there in time. If I didn't get there in time he'd pee inside and be very contrite. So I still had to watch him closely and I still had to confine him when I couldn't watch him, even though he knew what to do. Over several weeks his bladder control, and his awareness of when he needed to go, both improved and this became less and less of an issue.

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Nipping and biting problems.

ACDs are bred to bite in their work and this instinct will show itself early on. Teaching ACD pups not to nip humans is a critical part of early training. There are several different methods recommended; the key is consistency. Pick a method and work with it. You may not get an immediate response but hang in there. If after a week or two you still don't see any change then consider switching methods, but more likely the problem is in your consistency or delivery.

It's key to remember that ACDs have been bred to respond to force with force; "if a cow kicks you then come back biting harder" could easily be the ACD motto. Purely physical punishments don't tend to work well with ACDs because of this. You need to make sure that you are communicating with your dog, communicating that biting is NOT all right. Here are a couple of methods:

One, act like the puppy's mother would when he bites her. Grab the puppy's muzzle and pin him to the floor by it for a few seconds. Growl angrily or verbally scold your puppy. Be really ticked off. Being pinned to the floor by his muzzle is clear dogspeak for "you've been very bad". Hold the puppy down for a few seconds, until he gives in, and then let him back up. As soon as the correction is over you have to immediately turn off your annoyance. From the puppy's point of view the incident is now completely over.

If he bites again then do it again. Make sure that your growls etc. are truly convincing. ACDs are virtual mind readers and if you can't be convincingly angry then your puppy won't get the message.

Two, act like another puppy in the litter. Puppies bite each other in play all the time and they quickly learn how hard they can bite before their playmates get upset. Whenever your puppy clamps down on you yelp in pain. Again, you have to be truly convincing or your puppy will think you're just making play noises and take that as encouragement. The yelp can be an angry yelp directed right at the puppy to up the ante. You'll know your puppy understands if he briefly submits, ie drops his ears, lowers his head and tail, perhaps even lowers his whole body slightly. This submission will be over almost immediately and you have to turn off your annoyance just as quickly.

Don't forget to yelp when your puppy bites clothes. From the puppy's point of view human's clothing should be an especially sensitive part of their bodies, ie biting clothes seems to REALLY hurt people. Your puppy will quickly decide that biting clothes is a bad idea.

Once your puppy is no longer biting hard, change your criteria and yelp whenever he bites gently. When he's down to just gently mouthing you switch to yelping whenever he initiates the mouthing behavior. Using these steps you can train your puppy that 1. people have really sensitive skin, and 2. they should never use their mouths on people unless the people initiate the behavior.

I personally prefer the "Yelp" method because you can practice it a LOT very easily. Just play with the puppy and put your hands in his mouth as part of the game. When he bites, yelp, accept his brief submission and then go back to the game. My preferences aside, both methods work very well.

In both of the above methods there are ways to up the ante and make the correction for biting more severe. With the "mother dog" approach you can add in a scruff shake (grab the puppy by the scruff of the neck and give a quick shake, again a behavior the puppy's mother would use.)

With either method social isolation is a powerful way to make the correction more potent. When a puppy bites either his mother or his playmates too hard too often they will refuse to interact with him for awhile so again we're communicating with the puppy by using a "punishment" which another dog would use. Immediately isolate the puppy away from you for a brief period. 5 minutes is ample. I find that isolation where the puppy can see you and hear you but not actually get to you (behind a baby gate is great) works really well. Make sure you completely ignore the puppy for the entire time. Your puppy will find this EXTREMELY frustrating and take it as a serious punishment.

Above all, be consistent. No matter how cute it looks for that 10 lb. puppy to be hanging on to your pants cuff you have to treat it as a serious infraction. If the puppy thinks that you'll see his behavior as cute, even just 1 time in 20, he'll keep doing it despite punishments.

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Chewing and destructiveness in the house.

The easiest way to handle destructiveness problems is to never let them start (see the ACD puppy owner's mantra). Make sure that your puppy is always, always, always supervised. Whenever he shows the inclination to chew on something inappropriate substitute something acceptable. At first just use gentle distractions as you don't want to discourage chewing in general, it's very good for the teeth, you just want to discourage chewing on inappropriate things. When he knows a "Drop it" command then you can use this to get him to stop chewing something unacceptable and reward him with treats, praise, and a good chew toy.

Make sure that your puppy always has a supply of acceptable, and tasty, chew toys around. What your puppy likes will vary. Different dogs like to chew different things and the same dog's tastes will change with age. Try several different things to find what your puppy likes and change which toys are out regularly to keep them all new and interesting. Putting a toy away out of sight for a few weeks can make it new all over again.

Toys with a central cavity or hole, things like Kongs (available at most pet stores) or bones, can be made VERY interesting by smearing a little peanut butter or cheese inside. This can keep a puppy busy for hours as he tries to get at the good stuff just out of reach inside.

When you cannot supervise your puppy then confine him someplace where he has acceptable chew toys and can't reach anything unacceptable. Crate training, for when you are out of the house and for at night while you sleep, is essential for preventing destructiveness problems.

If you dog is already destructive in the house the problem is more difficult but by no means impossible. Not only do you have to teach your dog what is acceptable to chew, the same as with a puppy, you have to completely remove the unacceptable chewing behaviors. This can take some time as the behavior has become a habit. You have to treat the dog as if he were a puppy and never let him have the chance to chew on something forbidden. Encourage chewing on "good" things on a regular basis. And remember, scolding your dog for something which happened while you were out of sight is counter productive. Most dogs will just associate the scolding with your returning, not with the chewing. This makes the dog anxious about you while you're gone, and anxious dogs chew to relieve stress. The best bet is to treat him like a puppy and confine him someplace safe while you are away.

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Consistency

Consistency is probably the single most important thing when raising a dog. If you are not consistent the dog will see this ambiguity as an excuse to get away with otherwise punished behaviors. One important tidbit of animal behavior which has come out of behavioristic studies over the years directly relates to consistency.

"The occasionally rewarded behavior is the longest lived behavior." If you always reward a dog for something he will tend to show that behavior regularly. If you then stop rewarding the behavior the dog will usually stop showing it before long. If you always punish for a behavior then the dog will stop showing that behavior quite quickly. But if you punish for a behavior sometimes and reward for it others, the dog will continue to show the behavior over and over and over. In fact, if you sometimes punish and sometimes reward for a behavior, even if you later switch to only punishing it will take an extra long time for the dog to stop whatever it is. This is a basic principle of animal behavior which works for any animal tested, including humans.

To put this in concrete terms let's look at the behavior of begging at the dinner table. Many people find this annoying 90% of the time but occasionally the dog comes across as cute and receives a tidbit of food. This is a classic example of the occasionally rewarded behavior. Even though the dog is usually ignored or even punished for begging at the table, because begging works once in a great while he will keep trying it forever. The ONLY way to get rid of the begging behavior is to make sure that it never, never, EVER results in the dog getting food.

So, consistency is key to teaching your dog good behavior. "Bad" behaviors must never be rewarded, they should always be either ignored or punished, whichever is appropriate. No matter how cute the "bad" behavior is you must not let the dog know that you find it so otherwise that behavior becomes a standard part of his repertoire.

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Punishing your ACD for misbehavior

ACDs were bred for a hard physical job and they have very high pain tolerances. They firmly believe that if something challenges them physically the correct response is to come back biting. While this is a helpful attitude when working grumpy cattle it does present problems when you want to scold your dog for being bad. Physical punishments just are not the right way to go. For starters, you'll have to use a lot of force to actually upset your ACD, enough force that you risk doing him substantial damage. Secondly, he is unlikely to respond to this by being contrite but instead may see it as a reason to challenge you. By far the best bet is emotional blackmail. Emotional punishments are much more effective with an ACD.

Probably the harshest punishment from an ACD's point of view is to put him behind a baby gate in the next room. He can see you, hear you, but not be near you. The only physical punishment I ever use is bitter apple sprayed in the mouth, and this is only for aggressiveness with other dogs. Choke-chain, pinch collar, my ACD really doesn't care. But a bad taste in his mouth makes him pathetic, contrite, and very well behaved.

Note, when I say I do not use physical punishments with my dog I mean that I do not jerk him around with a pinch collar and that I certainly never hit him. This does not mean I never correct him physically, just that any physical methods are based in dog communication. Any physical methods I use are not done to cause pain but to provoke an appropriate emotional response. By using methods based on understanding dog behavior you can issue what your dog sees as a pretty severe punishment without causing any pain at all.

If he is being truly bad, that is completely ignoring me or doing something which is dangerous to himself, I use very strong corrections to let him know that I am angry and I am definitely the BOSS! First of these is grabbing him by the scruff of the neck and giving him a good shake. Second is grabbing him by the scruff on either side of his neck and cheeks and lifting his front feet off the ground. I then stare directly into his eyes at close range and tell him in no uncertain terms just how annoyed I am. Finally is the so-called "alpha roll", where the dog is rolled onto his back, held down with a hand on his chest, and I stare into his eyes and tell him off.

All of these punishments are reserved for severe infractions and all are very quick (it has probably been 5 years since any of my dogs did anything which warranted an alpha roll, or even a lift by the cheeks). None of these should last more than 5-10 seconds and even that is getting long. And as soon as the punishment is over the incident is forgotten; from the dog's point of view the subject is forgotten after 10 seconds or so. Not that he doesn't try to be extra good for the next three or four hours, but holding a grudge will do no one any good.

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Booby traps

It's not uncommon for a dog to get into trouble while we aren't looking. Getting on the kitchen counters, emptying out the trash, etc. are favorite activities while the humans of the house are otherwise occupied. You cannot scold a dog for something it has done in your absence. This only confuses the dog and does not solve the problem. So, how to handle such things?

I'm a firm believer in booby-traps. When Clovis went through his brief phase of taking used Kleenex from the bathroom trash here is what we did. I took a piece of cardboard and bent it such that it rested, somewhat precariously, on the towel rack above the trash can. Then I balanced 3 shaker cans (empty soda cans, penny inside, taped shut) on the cardboard. Finally, I crumpled a kleenex, tied it to the cardboard with a thread, and put the kleenex in the trash. When Clovis rummaged in the trash he pulled down the shaker cans and I didn't even have to be in the room at the time. Problem solved.

The key with booby traps is that they must be something which will startle the dog but not hurt him. With a little creativity almost anything can be booby trapped successfully. To really make them work, arrange for them to be set off while you are in the next room. When the trap goes off every human in the house should run in and scold the dog. Your dog comes away thinking that 1. that the kitchen counter (as an example) fights back when you try to steal food, and 2. people are psychic, they knew when he was getting on to the counter even though they were not there!

One final tidbit, if you can associate a particular smell with the trap you will help the dog remember why he doesn't do that behavior anymore. For example, if the trap is set on the kitchen counter, switch counter cleansers the same day you set the trap for the first time. You dog will associate the new cleanser's smell with the trap.

As another example, here is how one owner cured her dogs of chasing cars past her property. This isn't strictly speaking a booby trap, because people were involved in scolding the dogs, but the spirit is the same.

Well, today, one of the few cars that we see on our rather isolated, dead end road, came along, and Bear and Sam who had not had their usual daily exercise today for various reasons, RACED after the car which can only travel very slowly on our gravel roads, and I went nuts! Afterwards I frantically read through all my dog books and found a potential cure. I called a friend, drove to her house, sat in the passenger seat of her car (unknown car to my dogs) and had her drive slowly past our place. I kind of hid down low in the front with the door open and ready. When they came out running toward the back wheels, she stopped and I jumped out, raising all kinds of hell, alpha rolled everyone, screaming and carrying on!! The expression on their faces when they saw it was me coming out of the car was priceless! Anyway, we drove back to her place, borrowed another car and repeated it - this time they were hesitant but they still approached. Same thing. Sam ran and hid in the middle of a patch of yucca plants and Bear didn't know what to do or where to go. So, another car and one more pass. This time I was inside the house so the dogs could know I wasn't in the car. My friend was prepared to run out of the car as I had. Both dogs saw the car coming and plastered themselves against the front doorway of the house. It was very effective. Will repeat tomorrow with different circumstances. Just thought someone might like to know.... (Karen Johnson)

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ACDs and kids

Before the baby comes home from the hospital, bring home something with its smell (ie a blanket or clothes) and let the dog small and snuggle with it. This will get the dog used to the new member of the household before the physical introductions take place. If you think it will be a real problem for the dog, you can buy a baby doll a few weeks prior to the arrival of the baby and carry it around. Let the dog get used to you having your time occupied with something else.

When the baby comes home don't keep the dog isolated from it. Your dog will naturally be curious and keeping baby and dog separate will just increase this and perhaps make the dog a bit frantic to find out what that new thing is. Arrange for the dog and baby to spend as much time as possible near each other, playpens are wonderful things, so they get used to each other from day one. And from day one set up rules for interactions between the two. And above all make sure you set aside some quality time for the dog. Older siblings routinely are jealous of new babies because they take up so much of the parents' time, and this problem is just as common with dogs.

Clear rules for dogs and children solve most problems. Babies arrive immobile and non-threatening, and then pass through a stage where they are a source of lots of dropped food (very attractive to an ACD) before reaching the toddler stage, so this gives the dogs time to get used to the idea. It is important that the dogs understand that the baby is part of the pack and is the alpha dog's puppy. Children need to know that hitting, kicking, or teasing the dog is unacceptable behavior. If you have a basically nice dog and allow sensible controlled access to the new baby from the start - and obviously never leave them together unsupervised - you should have no problems.

All that being said, it is true that some dogs are just not going to be good with children. When raising your puppy you should consider whether you will eventually have children and this should affect how you train and socialize the dog. An adult dog who has had little exposure to children will not know how to treat them and may easily be to rough. Some dogs will be suspicious of children, they don't act like adults after all and this could be perceived as threatening. In general these problems can be solved by carefully socializing your puppy with children while it's still young. If you don't have children of your own, find a friend and 'borrow' some.

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ACDs and cats

ACDs can do very well with cats though it helps if they are introduced at the puppy stage. ACDs have a strong prey drive and unless they recognize cats as members of the household they may consider them lunch. The best bet is to handle the introductions while the dog is still a puppy as this is when they learn which species are friends and which are food.

The vaunted ACD high energy level and strong desire to herd may make them less than ideal friends for a cat even when they do get along. As long as the cat has a refuge from the dog then things should work out. Here is an example of ACD/cat relationships in one home.

On cat chasing: We have 3 cats as well as our two dogs and this is an occasional issue. We police it somewhat but it depends on which cat is involved. Binabik is the youngest cat and he joined the household when Clovis was 1.5 and before we had Maeve. He will come and ask the dogs to chase him around. It never looks like he's enjoying it but he'll come back and ask for more. I've seen him wake Maeve up to get her to play. Rhea is the grand damme of the household, at 16. She bloodied both dogs when they were pups and got a little too rambunctious for her taste and both have a healthy respect for her. They both tease her unmercifully but if she gets upset both back right down. Chase games are entertaining to watch since nobody ever wants to catch her. If she escapes at a fast walk then the dogs chase at her fast walk pace. Very amusing.

Moo-Cow (I know, dumb name but he looks like an Angus and he's about as dumb as a rock. Which is insulting to some sorts of granite.) at age 14 is afraid of both dogs, unless he's in one of his 'safe-zones' (and nobody has been able to figure out yet why some places are safe and others aren't). Both dogs know that if they go after him he'll startle and scramble in terror and both dogs love it. Again, neither wants to corner him because of the claws but mostly he just runs away. In this case my wife and I interfere and help out the cat. The dogs are not allowed to chase him around because it traumatizes him so much. It's been made clear that if he's cornered he panics such that he'll try to do real damage and Clovis will then respond in kind. We just stop the whole thing from happening before it starts.

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Adding another dog to the household

In general this will not be a problem as these guys are very pack oriented. If your dog understands that you have added this other dog to the pack acceptance should come pretty quickly. If your current dog has been well-socialized then he will probably welcome a puppy quite happily. Adding an adult dog can be a bit trickier but usually you shouldn't have any serious problems. The two dogs will have to work out who is top dog and this may lead to a bit of sparring. In most cases this is noisy and looks and sounds horrible but no real damage is done. Occasionally you will see two dogs who truly do try to hurt each other and this is a much more difficult problem, beyond the scope of this document.

Introducing the new dog someplace neutral, such as at a park, is always a good idea as it reduces the chances of territoriality being an issue. Once they have gotten used to each other then you can bring the new dog home. For the first several days, until things settle down completely, you probably should not leave them alone together just to be on the safe side.

Jealousy over toys or food can spark squabbles but with a little forethought you probably can prevent this problem from ever happening. Make sure there are plenty of toys around so that each dog can have what he or she wants. Feed the dogs in separate bowls at least 6-10 feet apart. If one of them has trouble with the presence of the other while eating try separating them with a glass door. This allows them to see each other while eating but prevents direct interaction. You can slowly move the bowls closer to the door, over a period of days or weeks depending on the severity of the problem, until they are used to eating near each other.

You may have some difficulty with jealousy over human attention. Setting firm rules about what is and what is not acceptable behavior should solve this problem pretty quickly. Just make sure that you are fair and give the established dog at least as much, if not more, attention than the new dog. This will help the established dog adjust to the newcomer.

One final issue, pay attention to how the dogs regard each other as far as the dominance hierarchy goes. When you greet your dogs, give them a treat, or do almost any sort of interaction with both dogs right there, the top dog should be dealt with first. Doing this in the wrong order can easily provoke fights. The top dog will feel that you are undermining his position and may feel the need to attack the subordinate dog to reestablish his status. This can be difficult with a new puppy as their cuteness leads to them getting the most attention and usually the first attention. Be sure to greet the senior dog first and spend your time and attention equally.

Puppies can be a real pest to adult dogs. They want to play all the time, they steal favorite toys, they get in the way, a whole host of little annoyances. Adult dogs need to be allowed to police puppies for their own sanity if nothing else. If the adult dog is not allowed to scold the puppy then you may have problems with the two getting along. In addition, learning the ropes from an adult dog is a normal part of puppy life. You, as alpha "dog" will certainly scold the puppy when he gets out of line and your adult dog should be able to as well. As long as the adult dog is doing no serious damage, and it is a rare adult who would harm a puppy, there is really nothing to worry about. And ACDs are often officious and love enforcing the rules. You may find that your adult dog not only keeps the puppy from being a pest, he may keep the puppy from breaking YOUR household rules. Sometimes a puppy is easier to raise with an adult ACD around as the adult dog will do some of the babysitting for you!

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Chaining vs. Crating

There are several reasons not to chain out a dog, even for brief intervals, and several good alternatives.

1) Dogs on chains can be teased by kids or attacked by unleashed dogs. They really are at the mercy of whatever comes along.

2) The frustration of being tied up can lead to aggressive behavior. (By frustration, I mean not being able to get to that squirrel, kid walking by, other dog, etc.) I'm not saying this *always* happens, but it is a frequent consequence. With a breed that was originally bred to heel (read bite), this is something to be considered seriously - especially because you have children around. You have a great buddy for them and want to keep it that way.

3) You have to try to anticipate every place the dog could get hung up and injured and shorten the chain or remove the object. Dogs can be very creative this way, and ACDs are very agile and athletic jumpers. I won't subject you to the horror stories, but they happen.

4) If dogs are left for any extended period of time, the weather can change (so they need access to shelter) and they can easily knock water bowls out of reach. It helps if there's a neighbor willing to keep an eye out and rescue them.

Now for the alternatives.

A crate or X-pen (a 4x4' wire pen that can have a top put on for the acrobats among us), works very well and allows you to leave the dog in the house while you're gone. These can run you from about $50 to $100, depending on how strong/heavy/fancy they are.

Most dogs LOVE their crates- especially if that's a place where they are given food and toys. It becomes their private den. Some like the wire ones even better if something is draped over it to cover the top and sides (although puppies usually think the drape is another toy!) We crate our guys when we need to vacuum (OK- we *always* need to vacuum, but I mean when we actually get around to it!), when we have people working on the house, etc.

We've also been amazed at how our dogs (Elkhounds, an Elkhound? mix, and an ACD mix who used to snap solid fence boards in half lunging at them) adjusted to "temporary fences" made from metal T-posts hammered into the ground every 8' or so, and 5' wire fence material that can be bought in rolls for about $0.50 - $1 a foot at hardware stores. Somehow, when the dogs can see through it, they don't try to go over, under, or through it. The quotes are there because we've moved around the country a bit, and some of our temporary fences stayed as long as we did. (Rosemary Hoffman)

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